Compressed Air Dryers

The natural water vapor content of air is concentrated and is carried through the compression process in a compressor as a vapor in high temperatures. A proper means of dehydration must be incorporated in the conditioning of compressed air where demands of high quality compressed air are entailed. A dryer can be used to receive […]

Bladder Accumulators – Basic Constructional Features and Specification Parameters

This article can be downloaded by clicking the link here A bladder accumulator consists of a seamless cylindrical pressure vessel (shell), internal elastomeric bladder, poppet valve, fluid (oil) port, charging valve, and clamps and brackets. A schematic diagram of a bladder accumulator is shown in the figure below and the basic constructional features and specification […]

Mounting Configurations of 4-port Hydraulic Directional Control Valves

[This is an extract of the article on ‘Mounting Configurations of 4-port Hydraulic Directional Control Valves’ authored by Joji Parambath. Full article can be downloaded by clicking the link here] Table 1 presents the size designations, port sizes, and nominal flow rates for different sizes of 4-port hydraulic directional control valves according to the DIN […]

Constructional Features of Hydraulic Cylinders

Hydraulic cylinders are designed to operate at high pressures and handle high loads in demanding operating conditions. Therefore, they need to be constructed with materials of high strength, expert workmanship, and advanced features to provide ruggedness, high quality, maintenance-free operation, and long service life. Some of the features of cylinder construction are presented below to […]

Side Loads in Hydraulic Cylinders

A long-stroke hydraulic cylinder often experiences significant side-load forces while in operation, especially when it is fully extended. The side load in the cylinder is the force component that acts laterally across the axis of its bearings, piston-rod seals, or piston. Many reasons can be attributed to the development of side loads on the cylinder. […]

Troubleshooting Chart for Hydraulic Pumps

The preventive maintenance is carried out on hydraulic systems to keep them in a perfect working condition at all times. However, faults or breakdowns do occur in hydraulic systems, which have to be traced and corrected with minimum delay and expense. Table below gives pump malfunctions and their potential causes and rectification. Disturbances Possible causes […]

Tips for Safe Hydraulic Operation

Some essential precautions necessary for the safe operation of hydraulic systems are enlisted below: Design and build hydraulic systems with safety in mind, Select hydraulic components and fluid conductors that are rated for the highest system working pressure, Position valves, safety guards, and controls with the operator’s safety in mind, Know the hazards involved in […]

Troubleshooting Chart for Hydraulic Cylinders

Most of the hydraulic system failures are similar. That is there is a sudden or gradual loss of pressure or flow. Consequently, cylinders and motors in these systems may stop working. Any of the system components can be at fault. Possible causes of hydraulic cylinder faults and their rectification are highlighted below: Possible causes Rectification […]

Safety in Hydraulic Systems

Any hydraulic system is inherently dangerous, as an enormous amount of energy is transmitted through the high-pressure system. There are many hazards associated with hydraulic systems. The safety of personnel must be ensured while they are operating and maintaining hydraulic systems. Every operator of hydraulic systems has the right to know the hazards of his/her […]

PLC Communication Services

A PLC system is configured using several networked components, such as PLCs, computer, communication modules, and HMI, with communication interfacing capabilities. These components can exchange data between two or more communication partners through the network using specific protocols for handling the data traffic. A network is characterized by the type of hardware involved, communication procedure, […]

Proximity Sensor Circuit Technology

Discrete output proximity sensors are most important for industrial applications. They gain importance in such applications where it is necessary to record or count moving objects or work-pieces on machines or conveyors. Based on the way of connection of the final output amplifier transistor of a discrete proximity sensor to the power supply terminals, proximity […]

Maintenance of Pneumatic Systems

As you are aware, a pneumatic system is an interconnection of various components such a compressor, actuators, control valves, and other elements using fluid conductors. The operation of the pneumatic system is affected by the presence of heat, dust, moisture, leaks, loose bolts, and misalignment in the system. Lack of regular maintenance may result in […]

Hydraulic Seals

Seals (or packings) are deformable materials sandwiched between the mating surfaces to close of their small gaps. They retain fluid under pressure within the system and keep foreign matter out. They prevent the metal-to-metal contact of sliding surfaces. They are made from polymer materials that are flexible (rubber) and soft (plastics). The elastomeric quality enables […]

Electro-pneumatics and Automation

An electro-pneumatic system, in general, consists of an electrical or electronic control part controlling the pneumatic power part of the system. Integrating the power density of pneumatic systems with the controlling possibilities of the electric systems opens up a new world of opportunities for the high-performing pneumatic systems. In this hybrid technology, solenoid valves are […]

Hydraulic Fluid Cleanliness Standards

The cleanliness of hydraulic fluids needs to be monitored for maintaining the components of hydraulic systems at a satisfactory level. Many national and international organizations such as ISO, SAE, National Aerospace Standards (NAS), etc., have developed standards for specifying the particle size classification and contamination concentration levels in hydraulic fluids. All standards specify the contamination […]

Load Sensing Hydraulic System

The primary goal while designing a hydraulic system is to use less energy and do more work. A conventional hydraulic system with a fixed-displacement pump provides a constant flow through the system. The maximum system pressure is limited by the settings of a pressure relief valve in the system. When the load demands less flow […]

Electro-hydraulic Proportional Valves

The most common valve configurations used for hydraulic control systems range from the discrete valves controlled by the electromagnets to infinitely variable valves, controlled by the special proportional electromagnets (or torque motors). Proportional valves are devices for obtaining the finely variable flow and pressure controls using proportional electromagnets. They were developed as a low-cost alternative […]

Design of Industrial Hydraulic Systems

Design of Industrial Hydraulic Systems in the SI Units By Joji Parambath The book describes the design aspects of hydraulic systems systematically. It highlights the essential parameters and specifications of hydraulic components in SI units. Design Concepts in Industrial Hydraulic Systems in the English Units By Joji Parambath The book highlights the essential parameters and […]

Fittings for Hydraulic Fluid Conductors

Hydraulic Pipes Tubes and Hoses in the SI Units By Joji Parambath This book presents the necessary information about the configuration, performance specifications, and other details of pipes, tubing, and hoses and their fittings. The book uses the SI system of units. Pipes Tubes and Hoses in Hydraulic Systems in the English Units By Joji […]

Swing Clamp Hydraulic Cylinders

Hydraulic Cylinders in the SI Units By Joji Parambath This book deals with hydraulic cylinders of varying designs. The principles of operation, constructional details, and classification of the hydraulic cylinders are explained in detail. This chapter also covers the topics on the position transducers, swing clamp cylinders, applications, design aspects of hydraulic cylinders, advantages, and […]

Hydraulic Power Packs – Essential Features

Hydraulic Power Packs in the SI Units By Joji Parambath The book deals with power pack components such as hydraulic reservoirs, pumps, pressure relief valves, unloading valves, filters, accumulators, and power pack control units. It also presents the noise reduction techniques for hydraulic systems. Next, the book highlights power packs with standardized assemblies. The book […]

Hydraulic Filters – Construction and Specification

Textbook on ‘Hydraulic Filters Construction Installation Locations and Specifications’ By Joji Parambath The textbook presents information on the construction, installation locations, and specifications of hydraulic filters, in detail. Please click on the image links to go to the Amazon Website Hydraulic filters need to be the integral parts of every hydraulic system to ensure the […]

Preventive Maintenance of Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems

Textbook on ‘Maintenance Troubleshooting and Safety in Pneumatic Systems By Joji Parambath The book highlights all aspects of maintenance, troubleshooting, and safety in pneumatic systems, systematically. A section on energy saving highlights the steps that need to be taken for saving a substantial amount on energy costs. Textbook on ‘Maintenance, Troubleshooting and Safety in Hydraulic […]

Design of Pneumatic Systems

Textbook on ‘Design of Pneumatic Systems in the SI Units’ By Joji Parambath The book explains the design aspects of pneumatic systems systematically. The book also presents many typical examples of designing pneumatic systems using the SI units. Textbook on ‘Design Concepts in Pneumatic Systems in the English Units Please click on the image links […]

Electro-pneumatic Circuit Development for a stamping device

Electro-pneumatics and Automation Authored by Joji Parambath This book explains the functioning of single and double solenoid valves and various electrical control components such as pushbuttons, electro-magnetic releys, limit switches, reed switches, proximity sensors, timers, preset counters, and pressure switches. Many typical single-actuator and complex multiple-actuator electro-pneumatic circuits are also developed to illustrate various applications […]

Comparison of Power Transmission Systems (Part 2)

Textbook on ‘Pneumatic Systems and Circuits -Basic Level in the SI Units’ By Joji Parambath The book describes the topics on compressed air generation and contamination control, pneumatic actuators, and control valves, in detail. Many single-actuator control circuits are presented. Further, the book presents the maintenance, troubleshooting, and safety aspects of pneumatic systems. The book […]

Group Changing Pneumatic Circuit for Four Cascade Groups

Textbook on ‘Pneumatic Systems and Circuits -Advanced Level’ By Joji Parambath The book highlights the problem of signal conflicts and various methods of their elimination in detail. The developments of multiple-actuator circuits using cascade method and shift register are explained through many examples. Different positions of a group-changing pneumatic circuit for four cascade groups used […]

The Essential Parameters of Pressure Relief Valves

Textbook on ‘Hydraulic Power Packs in the SI Units’ By Joji Parambath The book deals with power pack components such as hydraulic reservoirs, pumps, pressure relief valves, unloading valves, filters, accumulators, and power pack control units. It also presents the noise reduction techniques for hydraulic systems. Next, the book highlights power packs with standardised assemblies. […]

Applications of Hydraulic Pumps

Industrial Hydraulic Systems and Circuits Basic Level in the SI Units By Joji Parambath The textbook deals with the components and circuits of hydraulic systems. The fundamentals required to understand the core topics are given initially. The book describes the topics on power packs, hydraulic actuators, and control valves, in detail. Next, the book also […]

Hydraulic Motors – Essential Parameters

Textbook on Hydraulic Motor (In the SI Units) by Joji Parambath The textbook presents information on the types, constructional features, working, and essential terms and definitions of semi-rotary actuators and hydraulic motors. Many solved, and unsolved numerical exercise problems are given in the textbook. The book uses the SI system of units. Textbook on Hydraulic […]

Telescopic Cylinders

Textbook on ‘Hydraulic Cylinders in the SI Units’ By Joji Parambath This book deals with hydraulic cylinders of varying designs. The principles of operation, constructional details, and classification of the hydraulic cylinders are explained in detail. This chapter also covers the topics on the position transducers, swing clamp cylinders, applications, design aspects of hydraulic cylinders, […]

Pre-charging of Hydro-pneumatic Accumulators

Textbook on ‘Hydraulic Accumulators and Circuits in the SI Units’ By Joji Parambath The textbook presents information on the classification, constructional features, working, and essential terms and definitions, sizing, and safety and maintenance aspects of hydraulic accumulators. The book uses the SI system of units. Textbook on ‘Accumulators in Hydraulic Systems in the English Units’ […]

Comparison of Power Transmission Systems (Part 1)

Pneumatic Systems and Circuits -Basic Level (in the SI Units) By Joji Parambath The book describes the topics on compressed air generation and contamination control, pneumatic actuators, and control valves, in detail. Many single-actuator control circuits are presented. Further, the book presents the maintenance, troubleshooting, and safety aspects of pneumatic systems. The book uses units […]

The Concept of Automation

The work process to carry out an industrial task usually involves many recurring steps. These steps can be carried out manually or automatically. In the manual system, an operator is always present to decide every process step. In the automatic system, the process controls itself, partially or entirely, by the feedback of its condition. Therefore, […]

Air Compression Process

The compression (or expansion) of air can be thought of as taking place under isothermal or adiabatic or polytropic conditions. Isothermal compression process takes place under constant temperature condition. When a volume of air in a system is compressed or expanded instantly, there is no time to add or dissipate heat into or out of […]